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Assessing Activity-travel Behavior of Caregiver-Employees & Health Risk Areas in Hamilton Metro

STREAM 2: Intersectionality Analysis for CEs

Assisted-transport involves transporting ill or disabled care recipients to conduct errands, shop, attend medical appointments, or participate in social activities. 73% of Canadian caregiver-employees (CEs) provide this task as the most frequent type of care to their care-recipient (Statistics Canada, 2012). Despite being the most dominant type of caregiving task, little is known about it and how it impacts burden and overall health. Additionally, demand for this task is expected to rise in the near future as the aging population continues to grow. Therefore, this ongoing dissertation will provide insightful results to decision makers, particularly those in health and transportation planning, to mitigate demand for assisted-transport via transport policies; thus, improving work-life balance of CEs and their wellbeing.

Research Phases

Phase I (National): Multi-Quantitative Analyses of Assisted-Transport (2016 – 2017)

Phase II (Metropolitan): Potential Accessibility using multi-Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analyses (2017 – 2018)

Phase III (Individual)Classifying Space-time flexibility of Carer-employees’ travel behaviour (2019)

Expandable List


Dardas, A., Williams, A., Kitchen, P., and Wang, L. (2019). Assisted-Transport Caregiving and Its Impact Towards Carer-Employees. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 62 (4): 475-497. Doi:

Dardas, A., Williams, A., and Scott, D. (2020). Carer-employees’ travel behaviour: Assisted-transport in time and space. Journal of Transport Geography, 82.

Ding, R., Dardas, A., Wang, L., and Williams, A. (2020). Evaluation of a Caregiver-Friendly Workplace Program (CFWP) Intervention on the Health of Full-Time Caregiver Employees (CEs): A Time Series Analysis of Intervention Effects. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000001980

Ding, R., Dardas, A., Wang, L. , and Williams, A. (2021). Improving the Workplace Experience of Caregiver-Employees: A Time-Series Analysis of a Workplace Intervention. Safety and Health at Work, Volume 12, Issue 3, pg 296-303.                 

Dardas, A., Williams, A., Wang, L. (2021). Evaluating changes in workplace culture: Effectiveness of a caregiver-friendly workplace program in a public post-secondary educational institution. PLOS ONE.

Dardas, A., Williams, A., Deluca, P. 2021. Measuring Potential Assisted-Transport Demand for Older Adult Care-Recipients in Hamilton, Canada. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Vol. 9 100284

Under Review

Dardas, A., Williams, A., and Wang, L. (2020). The Effectiveness of Caregiver-Friendly Workplace Program in a Public Post-Secondary Educational Institution. Submitted to PLOS ONE (under review – submitted in August).

Interactive Applications

Storymap Telling Competition – ArcGIS Online (Storymap) and Shiny (R)


Dardas A. (2018). Potential Accessibility to Vital Services for Hamiltonian Caregiver-Employees & Decision-Makers: A GIS Analyses. ESRI Young Scholars Competition. View poster.

Research Brief


Williams, A., Van Vegel, D., (presenters), Scott, D., Shuurman, N., Swanland, D., Knowles, J., Dardas, A. “Space-time Prisms of Carer-Workers (CEs) Juggling Unpaid Care and Paid Work.”. 5th Transforming Care Conference, Virtual (Venice, Italy), June 2021.

Williams, A. “Employing GIS to Better Understand the Gendered Nature of Unpaid Care Work.” UN Women (United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women).  Measuring SDG 5.4.1 (Unpaid Domestic and Care Work) in the Caribbean Conference. Virtual. Feb. 3-4, 2021.

Dardas A., and Williams, A. Assessing Activity-Travel Behaviour of Carer-Employees & Health Risk Areas in Canada (update). MIRA, McMaster Innovation Park, April 25th, 2018.

Dardas A., Williams A., Kitchen P., and Wang L. 2017. Assisted-Transport Caregiving and its impact towards Carer-Employees. Canadian Association of Geographers (CAG). York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Dardas A., Williams A., Kitchen P., and Wang L. 2017. Assisted-Transport Caregiving and its impact towards Carer-Employees. American Association of Geographers (AAG). Boston, MA, United States of America.

Dardas A. and Williams A. 2016. Assessing Activity-Travel Behavior of Caregiver-Employees & Health Risk Areas in Canada. ESRI User Conference. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.


Transforming Care Conference Presentation Learn More

“Space-time Prisms of Carer-Workers Juggling Unpaid Care and Paid Work” Transforming Care Conference presentation.